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Technique description

PGD: Technique description
What happens in Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis?
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a new method of diagnosis that is performed on the embryo before it is implanted in the womb. PGD provides information on the condition of each of the embryos conceived and only allows the healthy ones to be transferred to the womb. The PGD technique is the result of the combination of in vitro fertilization and genetic analysis.

How is PGD performed?
1. In Vitro Fertilization to obtain embryos.
2. Embryo Biopsy. The embryo biopsy takes place 72-76 hours after recovery of the eggs, when the embryo is at the 6-8 cell stage. It consists of extracting one or two cells from the embryo without this compromising its normal development.

Once the biopsy has been performed, the embryo is returned to the incubator in the Laboratory, where it will be kept in an in vitro culture with appropriate environmental conditions for continuing its development until the time of transfer to the patient's womb.
3. Diagnostic Genetic Analysis. The cell obtained from the biopsy is processed for analysis and subject to genetic study for the hereditary disease.
4. Embryo Transfer.The result of the genetic analysis is transmitted to the assisted reproduction team in the form of a detailed report and it is decided which embryos are going to be transferred depending on which are normal for the disease studied and the morphological characteristics of embryonic viability.
The transfer is made immediately after analysis, usually 4 days after recovery of the eggs.

Can the embryo be harmed by extracting a cell from it?
When the biopsy is performed, each embryo cell contains all the genetic information, so extraction of a cell does not affect the correct development of the rest of the embryo cells.
This technique requires high precision, and when carried out by experts it does not alter the development of the embryo. The risk of embryonic block is 0.67%.

Where does the IVF cycle take place?
The CME can advise you about Assisted Reproduction Centres with a proven track record where you can have the treatment.

Who benefits from a PGD cycle for hereditary diseases?
Currently the Centre for Embryo Medicine offers the study for over 170 monogenic diseases.This list is constantly being extended given that if the gene responsible is known, it is possible to develop the technique to carry out the Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis.

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